This book offers an illuminating discussion of recent scholarly debates over the concept of 'Gnosticism' and the nature of early Christian diversity. Acknowledging that the category 'Gnosticism' is flawed and must be reformed, David Brakke argues for a more careful approach to gathering evidence for the ancient Christian movement known as the Gnostic school of thought. Rather than depicting the Gnostics as heretics or as the losers in the fight to define Christianity, Brakke argues that the Gnostics participated in an ongoing reinvention of Christianity, in which other Christians not only rejected their ideas but also adapted and transformed them.